It is well documented that initiating antiretroviral therapy in severely immunosuppressed patients can result in illnesses associated with reconstitution of the immune system Shelburne and others The information in the table suggests that widespread therapy using currently available combination regimens will provide a net benefit in relation to the transmission of HIV.
Some people may have HIV but not know it. However, trends vary from country to country.
However, the effect of drug treatment modalities on the rate of HIV transmission is currently limited by laws in many countries that prohibit or restrict the use of methadone maintenance or other drug substitution strategies. In light of recent research findings, WHO released a guideline in recommending starting HIV treatment earlier in the course of illness.
Consequently, countries with low-level and concentrated epidemics should emphasize interventions that target individuals at especially high risk of becoming infected or of transmitting the virus, whereas countries with generalized epidemics should also invest heavily in interventions that target entire populations or population subgroups.
As of Cost-effectiveness estimates of VCT vary widely, and as with many other prevention interventions, these estimates are extremely sensitive to the prevalence of HIV in the population that is seeking testing.
The time from presentation with an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection to death depends on the type of infection, the availability of care, and the patient's adherence to prescribed prophylaxis and treatment. The range of complications arising from continued HIV infection varies from country to country, reflecting the differences in infectious agents that populations have encountered earlier in life or are exposed to when immunosuppressed.
Because evidence indicates that mixed feeding breast milk and formula or other substance has a higher risk of transmission than exclusive breastfeeding Coutsoudis and othersmothers should be counseled on the superiority of early weaning over mixed feeding.
Indeed, HIV contributes [to the collapse of the immune system], but other things contribute as well. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission The existing data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions target MTCT in order of decreasing cost-effectiveness as follows: Avoidance of unwanted pregnancies among infected mothers.
Numerous studies have shown that information alone is typically insufficient to change risk behavior.